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Detroit DD13 DD15 EPA07 Application & Installation Manual

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Covers: Detroit DD13 / DD15 EPA07 Application and Installation
Pages: 304
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This manual discusses the proper application and installation of the Detroit DD13, DD15 EPA07 Engine.

The following is a list of topics contained in the A&I Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION
2 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
2.1 SAFETY MEASURES
2.2 STANDS
2.3 GLASSES
2.4 WELDING
2.5 WORK PLACE
2.6 CLOTHING
2.7 ELECTRIC TOOLS
2.8 AIR
2.9 FLUIDS AND PRESSURE
2.10 BATTERIES
2.11 FIRE
2.12 FLUOROELASTOMER
3 ENGINE AND ACCESSORY IDENTIFICATION
3.1 ENGINE AND ACCESSORY IDENTIFICATION DESCRIPTION
3.2 MAJOR COMPONENT LOCATIONS
3.3 ENGINE IDENTIFICATION
4 AIR INLET SYSTEM
4.1 AIR INLET SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
4.1.1 DD PLATFORM ON-HIGHWAY ENGINES
4.2 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
4.2.1 DRY PAPER ELEMENT AIR CLEANERS
4.2.1.1 LIGHT-DUTY AIR CLEANER
4.2.1.2 MEDIUM-DUTY USE AIR CLEANER
4.2.1.3 HEAVY-DUTY USE AIR CLEANER
4.2.1.4 EXTRA HEAVY-DUTY USE
4.2.1.5 FOAM TYPE AIR CLEANERS
4.2.1.6 OIL-BATH AIR CLEANERS
4.2.1.7 AUXILIARY PRECLEANERS
4.2.1.8 INLET SCREENS
4.2.1.9 RAIN CAPS AND INLET HOODS
4.2.1.10 WATER DRAINS
4.2.1.11 INLET SILENCERS
4.2.1.12 AIR CLEANER SELECTION
4.2.2 RESTRICTION INDICATOR
4.2.3 PIPEWORK
4.2.3.1 PIPEWORK MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
4.2.3.2 DIFFUSERS
4.2.4 HOSE CONNECTIONS
4.3 DESIGN GUIDELINES

4.3.1 MAXIMUM AIR INLET FLOW
4.3.2 AIR INLET SYSTEM RESTRICTION
4.3.3 INLET LOCATION
4.3.4 AIR-TO-AIR CHARGE AIR COOLER
4.3.4.1 RESTRICTION AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS
4.3.4.2 CLEANLINESS
4.3.4.3 LEAKAGE
4.3.4.4 SIZE
4.3.4.5 COOLING AIR FLOW RESTRICTION
4.3.4.6 MATERIAL
4.3.4.7 HEADER TANKS
4.3.4.8 LOCATION
4.3.4.9 FAN SYSTEMS
4.3.4.10 SHUTTERS
4.3.4.11 WINTERFRONTS
4.4 TESTING REQUIREMENTS
4.4.1 TESTING LOCATION
4.4.2 INLET SYSTEM RESTRICTION
4.4.3 AIR-TO-AIR SYSTEM EVALUATION TESTS
4.4.3.1 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE–AMBIENT TO INTAKE MANIFOLD
4.4.3.2 CHARGE AIR COOLER SYSTEM RESTRICTION
4.5 TEST
4.5.1 MOBILE AIR-TO-AIR
5 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
5.1 EGR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
5.2 INSTALLATION AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
5.2.1 COOLING SYSTEM
5.2.2 AUXILIARY COOLERS
5.3 TESTING REQUIREMENTS
6 EXHAUST SYSTEM
6.1 EXHAUST SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
6.1.1 EXHAUST SYSTEM
6.1.2 TURBOCHARGER
6.1.3 AXIAL POWER TURBINE
6.2 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
6.2.1 BACK PRESSURE
6.2.2 NOISE
6.2.3 FLEXIBLE FITTINGS
6.2.4 EXHAUST CONNECTION POINTS
6.2.5 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIPEWORK
6.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
6.3.1 TEMPERATURE DROP FROM TURBOCHARGER OUTLET TO AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE
6.3.2 DISTANCE FROM HYDROCARBON DOSER TO ATD INLET
6.3.3 OUTLET LOCATION
6.3.4 DRAINAGE

6.3.5 SYSTEM INSULATION
6.3.6 BENDING MOMENT CALCULATIONS
6.4 TESTING REQUIREMENTS
6.4.1 MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST BACK PRESSURE
6.4.2 MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE DROP FROM TURBOCHARGER TO ATD INLET
6.4.3 MEASUREMENT OF EXHAUST LEAKAGE BETWEEN TURBOCHARGER AND ATD INLET
7 AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM
7.1 AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
7.2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION / OPERATION .
7.2.1 AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE
7.2.2 INTAKE THROTTLE
7.2.3 HYDROCARBON (HC) DOSER
7.3 AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE DESIGN FEATURES
7.3.1 FEET / HOOKS
7.3.2 LOCATING DEVICE
7.3.3 SENSOR BOX DISCUSSION
7.3.4 V-BAND CLAMPS
7.3.5 SENSOR AND HARNESS
7.4 AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE VARIATIONS
7.5 NOISE ATTENUATION
7.6 MASS OF THE AFTERTREATMENT DEVICE
7.7 MOUNTING REQUIREMENTS .
7.7.1 MOUNTING ZONES
7.7.2 BENDING MOMENT FOR INLETS AND OUTLETS
7.7.3 DRAINAGE
8 COOLING SYSTEM, AIR-TO-AIR CHARGE COOLING
8.1 COOLING SYSTEM, AIR-TO-AIR CHARGE COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
8.2 JACKET WATER COOLING SYSTEM
8.3 THERMOSTAT
8.3.1 VENTING
8.4 WATER PUMP
8.5 TYPES OF COOLING SYSTEMS
8.5.1 RAPID WARM-UP COOLING SYSTEM RECOMMENDED DESIGN
8.5.2 AUXILIARY AIR-COOLED COOLER CORES
8.5.3 COOLANT HEATERS
8.6 AIR-TO-AIR CHARGE COOLING
8.6.1 CHARGE AIR COOLER
8.7 COOLING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
8.7.1 SYSTEM FILL
8.7.2 SYSTEM DRAIN
8.7.3 DEAERATION
8.7.4 SYSTEM COOLANT CAPACITY
8.7.5 DRAWDOWN CAPACITY
8.7.6 CORE CONSTRUCTION

8.7.7 WATER PUMP INLET PRESSURE/MAXIMUM STATIC HEAD
8.7.8 COOLANT FLOW RATE/EXTERNAL PRESSURE DROP
8.7.9 MINIMUM COOLANT TEMPERATURE
8.7.10 SYSTEM PRESSURIZATION
8.7.11 COOLANTS
8.8 CHARGE AIR COOLING REQUIREMENTS
8.8.1 COOLING CAPABILITY
8.8.2 MAXIMUM PRESSURE LOSS
8.8.3 CLEANLINESS
8.8.4 LEAKAGE
8.9 VEHICLE SIGN-OFF
8.10 COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
8.10.1 COOLING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
8.10.1.1 ENGINE OPERATING TEMPERATURE
8.10.1.2 INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE
8.10.2 ENGINE PERFORMANCE
8.10.2.1 ENGINE HEAT REJECTION
8.10.2.2 COOLANT FLOW
8.10.2.3 HEAT TRANSFER CAPABILITIES
8.10.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND OPERATING CONDITIONS
8.10.3.1 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
8.10.3.2 ALTITUDE
8.10.3.3 SPACE CONSTRAINTS
8.10.3.4 NOISE LIMITS
8.10.3.5 TILT OPERATIONS OR INSTALLATIONS
8.10.4 SYSTEM COMPONENTD
8.10.4.1 ADDITIONAL HEAT LOADS TO COOLANT
8.10.4.2 ADDITIONAL HEAT LOADS TO AIR
8.10.4.3 COOLANT TYPE
8.10.4.4 PLUMBING
8.10.4.5 AUXILIARY COOLANT FLOW PATH CIRCUITRY
8.10.4.6 WATER COOLED EXHAUST SYSTEMS
8.10.4.7 WATER PUMPS
8.11 CHARGE AIR COOLING DESIGN GUIDELINES
8.11.1 SIZE
8.11.2 COOLING AIR FLOW RESTRICTION
8.11.3 MATERIAL
8.11.4 HEADER TANKS
8.11.5 LOCATION
8.11.6 PIPEWORK
8.12 HEAT EXCHANGER SELECTION
8.12.1 SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
8.13 FAN SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS AND FAN SELECTION
8.13.1 BLOWER VS. SUCTION FANS
8.13.1.1 FAN PERFORMANCE
8.13.1.2 FAN POSITION
8.13.1.3 FAN SHROUDS

8.13.1.4 FAN SYSTEM ASSEMBLIES
8.13.1.5 FAN DRIVES
8.13.1.6 BAFFLES TO PREVENT AIR RECIRCULATION
8.13.1.7 SHUTTERS
8.13.1.8 WINTERFRONTS
8.14 RADIATOR COMPONENT DESIGN
8.14.1 DOWN FLOW AND CROSS FLOW RADIATORS
8.14.1.1 HORIZONTAL RADIATOR
8.14.1.2 RAPID WARM-UP DEAERATION TANK — DOWN FLOW RADIATOR
8.14.1.3 REMOTE MOUNTED RADIATORS/HEAT EXCHANGER
8.14.1.4 INTEGRAL TOP TANK
8.14.1.5 REMOTE TANK
8.14.1.6 RADIATOR BOTTOM TANK
8.14.1.7 COOLANT PRESSURE CONTROL CAPS AND RELIEF VALVES
8.14.1.8 THERMOSTAT
8.14.1.9 COOLANT SENSOR DEVICES
8.14.1.10 COOLANT RECOVERY SYSTEM
8.14.2 COLD WEATHER OPERATING OPTIMIZATION
8.14.2.1 ENGINE
8.14.2.2 VEHICLE
8.14.2.3 COOLING SYSTEM
8.14.2.4 HEATER CIRCUIT
8.14.3 COOLANT HEATERS
8.14.4 MULTI-DUTY CYCLE
8.14.5 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
8.15 COOLING SYSTEM EVALUATION TESTS
8.15.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
8.15.2 INSTRUMENTATION
8.15.2.1 THERMOCOUPLES AND ASSOCIATED HARDWARE
8.15.2.2 PRESSURE GAUGES AND ASSOCIATED HARDWARE
8.15.2.3 THERMOSTAT
8.15.2.4 SIGHT GLASS AND TRANSPARENT TUBING
8.15.2.5 GRADUATED CONTAINER
8.15.2.6 PRESSURE CAP
8.15.2.7 STOP WATCH
8.15.2.8 LIGHT
8.15.2.9 WATER SUPPLY AND HOSE
8.15.2.10 ENGINE LOADING METHOD
8.15.2.11 TAPE MEASURE
8.15.2.12 FLOWMETERS AND ASSOCIATED HARDWARE
8.15.3 TEST PREPARATIONS
8.15.4 TYPES OF TESTS
8.15.4.1 CONTINUOUS FILL
8.15.4.2 INTERRUPTED FILL
8.15.4.3 BUCKET FILL
8.15.4.4 TOTAL SYSTEM CAPACITY
8.15.4.5 DRAINING CAPABILITY

8.15.4.6 WATER PUMP BINDING TEST
8.15.4.7 DEAERATION TEST
8.15.4.8 DRAWDOWN TEST
8.15.4.9 WATER FLOW AND PRESSURE TEST
8.15.4.10 COOLING INDEX TEST
8.15.5 CHARGE AIR COOLING EVALUATION TEST
8.15.6 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
8.15.7 INSTRUMENTATION .
8.15.7.1 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
8.15.7.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
8.15.8 LOCATION
8.15.9 INLET SYSTEM RESTRICTION
8.15.9.1 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE — AMBIENT TO TURBOCHARGER INLET
8.15.9.2 AIR-TO-AIR SYSTEM EVALUATION TESTS
8.15.9.3 MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RISE — AMBIENT TO INTAKE MANIFOLD
8.15.9.4 CHARGE AIR COOLER SYSTEM RESTRICTION
8.15.10 TEST
8.15.11 TEST ANALYSIS
8.16 COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
8.16.1 ENGINE OVERHEAT
8.16.1.1 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR ENGINE OVERHEAT
8.16.2 COLD RUNNING ENGINE (OVERCOOLING)
8.16.3 POOR CAB HEATER PERFORMANCE
8.16.3.1 THERMOSTAT LEAKAGE TEST
8.16.3.2 CAC AIR LEAKAGE TEST
8.17 MAINTENANCE
9 FUEL SYSTEM
9.1 FUEL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
9.2 FUEL SYSTEM EQUIPMENT/INSTALLATION GUIDELINES
9.2.1 FUEL TANK
9.2.1.1 MATERIAL
9.2.1.2 DESIGN
9.2.1.3 CAPACITY
9.2.1.4 POSITION .
9.2.2 FUEL FILTERS/FUEL FILTER MODULE
9.2.3 FUEL FILTER CONFIGURATION
9.2.4 FUEL LINES
9.2.4.1 DESIGN
9.2.4.2 MATERIAL
9.2.4.3 SIZE
9.3 FUEL SELECTION
10 LUBRICATION SYSTEM
10.1 LUBRICATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
10.2 LUBRICATION OIL SELECTION
10.3 LUBRICATION FILTER
10.3.1 SUPPLEMENTAL FILTRATION SYSTEMS
10.4 ENGINE COMPONENT OIL SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
10.4.1 TURBOCHARGER LUBRICATION
10.4.2 AIR COMPRESSOR LUBRICATION ……………………………………………………………….. 10- 5
10.4.3 CRANKCASE BREATHER LUBRICATION ………………………………………………………. 10- 5
10.5 COMPONENT OPTIONS & INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS ……………………………… 10- 5
10.5.1 OIL SAMPLING VALVE ………………………………………………………………………………… 10- 5
10.5.2 OIL CHECKS AND FILLS ………………………………………………………………………………. 10- 5
10.5.3 OIL SUMPS …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10- 6
10.5.4 ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE OIL CHANGE (ESOC) FITTINGS ………………………….. 10- 6
10.5.5 OIL IMMERSION HEATERS ………………………………………………………………………….. 10- 6
10.5.6 OIL LEVEL SENSORS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 10- 6
10.6 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ……………………………………………………………………. 10- 7
10.6.1 FIRST TIME START ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10- 7
10.6.2 OIL LEVEL MEASUREMENTS ………………………………………………………………………. 10- 7
10.6.3 USED OIL ANALYSIS ……………………………………………………………………………………. 10- 7
10.6.4 OIL DRAIN INTERVALS ………………………………………………………………………………… 10- 7
11 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………… 11- 1
11.1 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ………………………………………………………………. 11- 2
11.2 INSTALLATION GUIDELINES ……………………………………………………………………………. 11- 3
11.2.1 BATTERY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11- 3
11.2.1.1 FILLER CAP BATTERIES ………………………………………………………………………… 11- 3
11.2.1.2 SEMI-MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERIES …………………………………………………. 11- 3
11.2.1.3 MAINTENANCE-FREE BATTERIES ………………………………………………………….. 11- 3
11.2.1.4 DEEP CYCLE BATTERIES ………………………………………………………………………. 11- 4
11.2.1.5 GEL-CELL AND NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERIES ……………………………………….. 11- 4
11.2.1.6 BATTERY CAPACITY ………………………………………………………………………………. 11- 4
11.2.1.7 BATTERY MOUNTING AND LOCATION ……………………………………………………. 11- 4
11.2.2 CRANKING MOTOR …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11- 5
11.2.3 ALTERNATORS ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11- 9
11.2.3.1 ALTERNATOR MOUNTING ………………………………………………………………………. 11-10
11.2.4 GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………………………………………. 11-11
11.2.5 WIRING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11-11
11.2.5.1 GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING …………………………………………………. 11-11
11.2.5.2 CABLE LOSS TEST PROCEDURE …………………………………………………………… 11-12
11.2.5.3 MEASURING CIRCUIT RESISTANCE ……………………………………………………….. 11-12
11.2.5.4 CALCULATING CIRCUIT RESISTANCE ……………………………………………………. 11-13
12 MOUNTING SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………… 12- 1
12.1 MOUNTING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ………………………………………………………………… 12- 2
12.1.1 THREE-POINT MOUNTING …………………………………………………………………………… 12- 2
12.2 SOLID MOUNTING SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………… 12- 3
12.3 FLEXIBLE MOUNTING SYSTEMS ……………………………………………………………………… 12- 4
12.3.1 FLEXIBLE MOUNT SELECTION ……………………………………………………………………. 12- 4
12.3.1.1 METHOD A …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12- 5
12.3.1.2 METHOD B …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12- 6
12.4 INSTALLATION CHECK LIST …………………………………………………………………………….. 12- 6
12.5 ENGINE SUPPORT ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12- 7

13 TORSIONAL ANALYSIS ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13- 1
13.1 TORSIONAL ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION ……………………………………………………………… 13- 2
13.2 MASS ELASTIC DATA ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13- 2
13.3 TORSIONAL ANALYSIS REQUEST FORM …………………………………………………………. 13- 6
14 ENGINE ELECTRONIC CONTROLS …………………………………………………………………….. 14- 1
14.1 ENGINE ELECTRONIC CONTROLS DESCRIPTION ……………………………………………. 14- 2
14.2 ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS ………. 14- 2
14.3 MOTOR CONTROL MODULE ……………………………………………………………………………. 14- 3
14.4 COMMON POWERTRAIN CONTROLLER ………………………………………………………….. 14- 3
14.5 ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTOR ………………………………………………………………………… 14- 4
14.6 WIRING HARNESSES ………………………………………………………………………………………. 14- 5
14.6.1 INJECTOR HARNESSES ………………………………………………………………………………. 14- 6
14.6.2 VEHICLE INTERFACE HARNESS ………………………………………………………………….. 14- 6
14.6.3 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS …………………………………. 14- 8
14.6.4 ENGINE SENSOR HARNESS ……………………………………………………………………….. 14- 8
14.6.5 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER HARNESS …………………………………………………….. 14- 8
14.7 SYSTEM SENSORS …………………………………………………………………………………………. 14- 8
14.8 WELDING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14-11
15 AUXILIARY AIR SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………… 15- 1
15.1 AIR START ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15- 2
15.1.1 SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………………………………………………. 15- 2
15.1.1.1 AIR TANKS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15- 2
15.1.1.2 AIR CONTROL SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………. 15- 2
15.1.1.3 AIR STARTERS REQUIRING LUBRICATORS ……………………………………………. 15- 3
15.2 AIR COMPRESSOR …………………………………………………………………………………………. 15- 3
15.2.1 16 CFM AND 32 CFM COMPRESSORS …………………………………………………………. 15- 4
16 COLD WEATHER STARTING AND STARTING AID SYSTEMS ………………………………… 16- 1
16.1 COLD WEATHER STARTING AND STARTING AID SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION ………. 16- 2
16.2 PREPARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16- 3
16.2.1 LUBRICATING OIL ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 16- 3
16.2.2 DIESEL FUEL ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16- 4
16.2.3 COOLANT …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16- 4
16.2.4 BATTERY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16- 6
16.2.5 STARTER MOTOR ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 16- 7
16.2.5.1 ELECTRIC STARTER MOTOR …………………………………………………………………. 16- 7
16.3 COLD WEATHER STARTING …………………………………………………………………………….. 16- 8
16.3.1 STARTING SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………… 16- 8
16.3.1.1 INTAKE AIR HEATER ………………………………………………………………………………. 16- 8
16.3.1.2 COOLANT TANK TYPE HEATERS ……………………………………………………………. 16- 8
16.3.1.3 ENGINE BLOCK HEATER ……………………………………………………………………….. 16-11
16.3.1.4 OIL PAN HEATER …………………………………………………………………………………… 16-11
16.3.1.5 FUEL ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16-11
16.3.1.6 FUEL HEATERS ……………………………………………………………………………………… 16-11
16.3.1.7 BATTERY HEATER TYPES ……………………………………………………………………… 16-11
16.3.1.8 HEATING ENGINE COMPARTMENT ………………………………………………………… 16-12

16.3.2 STARTING PROCEDURES ……………………………………………………………………………. 16-12
16.3.3 ENGINE STARTING REQUIREMENTS ………………………………………………………….. 16-13
16.4 COLD WEATHER OPERATION ………………………………………………………………………….. 16-13
16.4.1 ETHER INJECTION ………………………………………………………………………………………. 16-13
16.4.2 IDLING AND LIGHT LOAD …………………………………………………………………………….. 16-13
16.4.3 MAINTENANCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16-13
16.4.4 WIND PROTECTION …………………………………………………………………………………….. 16-14
16.4.5 BATTERY AND CHARGING SYSTEM …………………………………………………………….. 16-14
16.4.6 AIR CLEANER MAINTENANCE ……………………………………………………………………… 16-14
16.4.7 SUPPLEMENTAL HEATING DEVICE ……………………………………………………………… 16-14
16.4.8 DDC COLD START RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………….. 16-14
17 ACCESSORY DRIVE SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………… 17- 1
17.1 ACCESSORY DRIVES ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17- 2
17.2 GEARTRAIN ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17- 2
17.2.1 GEARTRAIN GEAR DRIVE RATIOS ……………………………………………………………….. 17- 3
17.3 DRIVETRAIN …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17- 4
17.4 BENDING MOMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17- 5
18 AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (APU) ………………………………………………………………………… 18- 1
18.1 AUXILIARY POWER UNITS (APU) …………………………………………………………………….. 18- 2
18.2 APU DESCRIPTION …………………………………………………………………………………………. 18- 2
18.3 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………………………………………… 18- 3
18.3.1 APU FUEL SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………….. 18- 4
18.3.2 APU COOLANT SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………… 18- 6
18.3.3 APU EXHAUST SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………. 18- 9
18.3.4 APU ELECTRICAL SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………. 18- 9
18.4 APU ENGINE START-UP PROCEDURE …………………………………………………………….. 18-11
18.4.1 BLEEDING THE COOLANT SYSTEM …………………………………………………………….. 18-11
18.4.2 BLEEDING THE FUEL LINES ………………………………………………………………………… 18-12
18.4.3 VERIFYING ENGINE OPERATION …………………………………………………………………. 18-12
18.5 EXAMPLE INSTALLATION PHOTOS ………………………………………………………………….. 18-13
19 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS …………………………………………………….. 19- 1
19.1 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS DESCRIPTION …………………………… 19- 2
19.2 AIR INLET TEMPERATURE ………………………………………………………………………………. 19- 2
19.3 EXHAUST BACK PRESSURE ……………………………………………………………………………. 19- 2
19.4 FUEL TEMPERATURE ……………………………………………………………………………………… 19- 3
19.5 ALTITUDE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19- 3
APPENDIX A: ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS ………………………………………………………………. A- 1
APPENDIX B: VENDORS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. B- 1
GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. G- 1

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